The high range Himalayan ecosystem in Pakistan is of critical importance for the biodiversity and ecosystems and forms an important life-support system for a large number of remote agro-pastoral and other communities that depend on it. It provides a number of essential ecosystem services – a source of fresh water, maintains hydrological functions, reduces erosion and sedimentation downstream, provides food security and maintains land races of food crops grown in much of Northern Pakistan. Hundreds of millions of people depend on these ecosystems for water for hydro power and agriculture, forage for livestock and food for themselves, mineral resources, medicinal and aromatic plants and their products.. This region also provides a habitat for the globally endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) range that extends from the mountains of Central and Southern Asia across twelve range countries. Despite the immense biological, social-cultural and hydrological values of the Himalayan ecosystems, these natural ecosystems are under severe threat from high dependence of local communities on natural resources, pressures from economic development, selective removal of medicinal and aromatic plants, and the emerging threat of illegal wildlife trade and wildlife crime. To address these threats, the project is adopting a landscape approach to conservation and management by ensuring the key biodiversity areas, buffer zones, corridors and the region outside traditional protected areas that are critically important for conservation of endangered snow leopard and associated species and habitats. The project will support management of these key biodiversity areas in tandem with the sustainable use of resources and improvements in livelihoods of local communities living in the region.